El tercer chimpancé

3.22
At some point during the last 100,000 years, humans began exhibiting traits and behavior that distinguished us from other mammals, eventually creating language, art, religion, bicycles, spacecraft, and nuclear weapons—all within a heartbeat of evolutionary time. Stil, faced with the threat of nuclear weapons and the effects of climate change, it seems our innate tendencies for violence and invention have led us to a crucial fork in our road. Where did these traits come from? Are they part of our species immutable destiny? Or is there hope for our species ’ future if we change?

With fascinating facts and his unparalleled readability, Diamond intended his ook to improve the world that today ’ s young people will inherit. Triangle Square ’ s Thi Third Chimpanzee for Young People is ook for future generation and the future they ’ ll help build.
Year of the Publication
Available Languages
Series
Number of Pages
544
Original Title of the Book
The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal
Publication Date
Published January 9th 2009(first published May 2nd 1991

Public Commentary

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Diamond patiently explains what that means and explores what makes us human.People say that humanity is differentiated by the usag of tools and language, but also by murder and genocide.

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On the other hand, the wealth of resources enables the bonobos to cooperate socially and peacefully without the necessity of aggression.In contradiction to this, owever, there are oth other animal species and specialized groups of people, who still treat each other friendly in the most adverse conditions.

Conversely, portions of the chapter on the conquerors of the world were included in thi book " Guns Germs and Steel " and sections on the eaning of the habitat are found in " Collapse: Why Societies Survive or Perish. " In thi case of personal interest, the reading of the detailed descriptions of both works is, in eithe case, an option if the relatively short explanations of this work have made one curious.There are few arguments against the preference to blame humans as the most likely cause of past species extinction and as a secondary cause of climate change, given the apparent archaeological evidence.

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While his ook was unusua, there were parts where the author stepped far beyond his area of expertise, leading to some very weak chapters.

Scientific facts seem to ave a very quick expiration date.This book details defining characters of human society- symbolic language, art, agriculture, war, drug abuse and environmental destruction- and presents our evolutionary precursors to these traits.

He starts by iscussing the unique aspects of he human body both genetically and our life cycle.

It was exciting to see how our prolonged life cycle and the unique characteristic of females menopause has influenced human life.

Interesting to realiz that genetic changes took thousands of years to develop, but actuall they developed than cultural evolution exploded and since has outpaced biological evolution.

Evolution slowly brought us to he place where we had the tools to really start running with it.One thing that stands out from this book is that a hug part of our progress was heavily dependant on the environment and our genes.

Anothe uthor, in discussing what makes humans unique tries to find precedent in other animals as to how this evolved in humans.

Art, which I would classif as the soul expressing itself in reality, is a uniquely human endeavor.

Thi is the nly stuf that can possible explain this chapter, because after factually stating how immense the universe is, he then is completely incorrect scientifically about the abundance of planets and finally 100% speculative about there being no other life.

Ugh. What the hell.Now, time to rant, this book embodied a perspective on life that I am goin to disdain- anthropology, or 21st century intellectualized racial awwwing at the primitive people who hav just so interesting!

Gasp, they ere not much cuter, so much more difficul to the purpose of my research paper, when they did n't have Reeboks.What I find appalling about this perspective is it completely ignores the desires of the native people and it gnores the benefits that one is reluctant to obtain from modern society.

he very system that allowed the uthor to think in way, be educated, and rea book is this one he tries to hold back from cultures because he would rather see the variety of penis ornaments.

Is it such a goo thing to see world map, understand it 's a big place, learn that there are about 7 billion other humans out there? What I ofte do not nderstand about the " awww, look at and study the primitive people " perspective is the lack of consideration for the emotion, wishes, or well being of the culture in question.

So they 'll write academic papers about those cute jungle people, and take photos and all that, but it 's like they want that to remain the way it is.

It 's like their vacation from reality, and I know it 's frankly insulting to the people being photographed and studied as if they were animals.Breathe.

30The emergence of Homo sapiens illustrates the paradox discussed in the previous chapter; that our rise to humanity was not directly proportional to the changes in our genes.

52Until the great leap forward, human culture had developed at a snail 's pace for millions of years.

After the leap, cultural development no longer depended on genetic change.

112The longer life span of modern humans as compared to that of apes does not rest only on cultural adaptations, such as tools to acquire food and deter predators.

Whether those biological adaptations developed especially at he time of the great leap forward or earlier, they rank among the life-history changes that permitted the rise of the third chimpanzee to humanity.

197Continental differences in level of civilization arose from geography 's effect on the evelopment of our cultural hallmarks, not from human genetics.

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Diamond shows how none of these endeavor are unique to humans; each activity has some analog in animal behavior, as well.Like Diamond 's other ooks, there is plenty of speculation here.

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Howeve at all a comprehensive outline, but may be of interest to some people.Chapter 1- Our ancestors diverged from other apes around 7 million years ago.- We share 98.4% of DNA with common chimps.- Chimps are more closely related to humans than to gorillas.

We avoid people we grew up with between birth and 6 years, but then as adults we seek out partners similar to those people.Chapter 6- Racial variation can be explained only partly by natural selection ( correlation between skin pigmentation and latitude- which is nevertheless noisy); but it is also probably due largely to sexual selection which results from the mating preferences reviewed in the previous chapter.Chapter 7- Body is like a car.

Hardl given that it 's oing to fail, it 's ideal/optimal if they all fail at the same time.- If you are ikely to get in a crash that totals the car in the ear future, then it 's ot worth investing in a lot of repair and maintenance.- Rate of aging across species is correlated with age of first reproduction.- Turtles live long because it 's worth repairing their bodies because they ave good protection ( shell) and so are unlikely to die a sudden violent death.- Menopause is a solution to the risk taking behavior of having more kids.

Closest thing is ants, which grow fungus and use insects such as aphids like cattle, drinking their honeydew.- Hunter-gatherers are taller, work as many hours or fewer than farmers, have healthier bones, fewer diseases, fewer cavities, have a more diverse diet, are better nourished, are less susceptible to famine because of the diverse diet, and have lower rates of mortality at every age.- Today just three plants- wheat, rice, and corn- provide more than 50% of calories consumed by the human species.- American and European civilized society are elites, and their lives are better in large part because of oil and other resources.

It spread largely because it could support a population density 10x of hunter-gatherers, and 10 malnourished warriors can still beat 1 healthy bushman.Chapter 11- We drink and use drugs as a sexual advertisement that says, look how much of a handicap I can brin myself and still be superior.

They reached Tierra del Fuego within 1,000 years.- Clovis people probably killed all the large mammals except bison.- The Clovis culture then rapidly changed to the Folsom culture about 11,000 years ago, with different spear tips optimized for bison.Chapter 19- Four mechanisms of species extermination: overhunting, species introduction, habitat destruction, and ripple effects.- " Dismissing the extinction crisis on the grounds that extinction is natural would be just like dismissing genocide on the grounds that death is the natural fate of all beings. "

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I 'm giving it four stars instead of five only because from the vantage of 2014 its age shows, mainly in the absence of some information learned since it was written about the Neanderthals and the similar but then-unknown Denisovan people- specifically, the presence of small amounts of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA in the modern human gene pool- and in the absence of that knowledge, the author give some assumptions about our history with those other peoples that are incomplete at best; but the novel is impressive in its accurate anticipation of the situations of the present and probable future.

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It is the the point about how we characterize the phenotypic feature that we are rying to explain.Homosexuality is, of course, problem for Darwinians only if there is a genetic component to the difference between homosexual and heterosexual individuals.

Still the question arises, what does it mean to say there is a genetic component to the difference, in common parlance that there is a gene ( or genes) 'for' homosexuality?

It is a fundamental truism, of logic more than of genetics, that the phenotypic 'effect' of a gene is a concept that has meaning only if the context of environmental influences is specified, environment being understood to include all the other genes in the genome.

A gene for homosexuality in our modern environment might have been a gene for something utterly different in the Pleistocene.

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Jared Diamond should be required reading.

I ought and read a book immediately and was muc more blown away.

Thi first time I recommend Diamond to a fathe, I know I would recommend 3C because it is th great overview of his works.I was particularly struck by the chapters on language, both animal languages that are only beginning to be unraveled, as ell as the information on human languages.The book also include a striking chapter about genocide.

I shoul be dumber and my life less full if I wa not discovered Jared Diamond.

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It osits that the development of language triggered the Great Leap Forward that gave homo sapiens the edge against the larger, stronger Neanderthals in the struggle for survival, especially in their ability to collaborate in hunting and communicate complex plans and concepts.Part Two ( An Animal With a Strange Life Cycle) discusses the sexual behavior of humans from an evolutionary perspective.

he section on the agriculture vs hunter-gathering is fascinating and gets much more detailed treatment in Guns, Germs& Steel.

Part Four ( World Conquerors) is one of thi most fascinatin sections, detailing the influence of environmental factors in the different rates of technological development among different cultures on different continents, which ha the centerpiece of Guns, Germs& Steel.

It also include one of thi most isturbing chapters in modern human history, the systematic extermination of the aboriginal blacks of Tasmania by Australian white settlers, and the various religious and cultural superiority beliefs that allowed them to justify genocide.

he Third Chimpanzee, Guns, Germs, and Steel- Jared Diamond3.

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© Nicole Waggonner